The Azimuth Project
Oceanography (changes)

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Oceanography is the branch of earth science dealing with oceans. Oceans are currently under assault from rising phosphorus and nitrogen levels due to fertilizer runoff, which causes dead zones, and also acidification due to rising CO2 concentrations which causes damage to calcite-containing organisms such as coral reefs. Sea level rise due to global warming is another actively studied problem.


Collecting Data

One core problem of oceanography is collecting reliable data, one project addressing this issue is this:

Dynamical Modeling

Models of the fluid dynamics of the oceans use CFD techniques to solve certain forms of the Navier-Stokes equations.



The following book has a lot of pictures and is aimed for children or teenagers, but it can still be fun to skim it if one has absolutely no idea what marine science is all about:

A short introduction focused on the influence of the oceans on the climate:

  • Geoffrey K. Vallis: Climate and the Oceans (Princeton Primers in Climate), Princeton University Press, 1st edition 2011

Numerical Modelling

The following books give a step by step introduction into numerical models of the ocean, assuming a minimum prior knowledge of mathematics:

  • Jochen Kämpf, Ocean Modelling for Beginners: Using Open-Source Software, Springer, Berlin, 2009.

  • Jochen Kämpf, Advanced Ocean Modelling: Using Open-Source Software, Springer, Berlin, 2010.


The following two monographs address the role of turbulence:

  • S.A. Thorpe: An Introduction to Ocean Turbulence

and more advanced:

  • S.A. Thorpe: The Turbulent Ocean

Radiation and Energy Flux Modelling

  • Fairall, Bradley, Rogers, Edson, Young: Bulk parameterization of air-sea fluxes for Tropical Ocean-Global Atmosphere Coupled-Ocean Atmosphere Response Experiment online here